Human Genome Project (HGP)(1990-2003)
(i) Identify al the genes in human DNA
(ii) Determine the sequences of the 3 billion base pairs presen in human DNA.
(iii) Store the information in databases
(iv) Improve the tools for data analysis
(v) Transfer the technologies to other sectors
(vi) Address the ethical, legal and social issues that may arise from this project.
Features of HGP
-The human genome contains 3164.7 million nucleotides (base pairs)
-The size of genes varies.
-A total number of genes is estimated at 30000 and 99.9% of the nucleotides are the same in all humans
-Only less than 2% of the genome codes for proteins.
-Repetitive sequences make up a large portion of the human genome
-Scientists have identified about 1.4 million locations, where DNA differs in single base in human beings. These are called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
Advantages of HGP:
Knowledge of the effects of variations of DNA among individuals can provide the ways to diagnose, treat and even prevent a number of diseases/disorders that affect human beings. It provides clues to the understanding of human biology.